City governments are not anymore the only actors in governing because they must bargain and cooperate with public sector and external actors for policy decisions. They are often blamed for failures while having little control over the factors that have produced the failures. Because the governing authorities continuously make compromises that are too often not to the benefit of the electorate they can be easily blamed for supporting faulty policies, especially if such policies include the environmental effects whose consequences on city populace are not immediately apparent. The governing authorities of the cities in hazardous environments should ascertain not only that the appropriate regulations for constructing resilient and sustainable habitats are passed, but also that these regulations are enforced, because when the regulatory captures from special interests (scientific or non) take place the disasters are most likely unavoidable. The environmental issues and the differences in urban development strategies in different parts of the world caused by rising urban population levels and globalization pose great challenges to city governance and this session will explore how these issues are being weighted between the economic interests and social responsibilities and the interests of the city as a whole. Examples of both the failed and successful city governance will illustrate the potential pathways to better city governance.